- Entering Makkah
As you reach the limits of the Haram, constantly recite the Talbiyah, do Dhikr and send Salawat upon the Prophet ﷺ. Recital of the following Dua is recommended upon entering the Haram:
َللَّهُمَّ هَذَا حَرَمُكَ وَأَمْنُكَ فَحَرِّمْنِي عَلَى النَّارِ، وَأَمِنِّي مِنْ عَذَابِكَ يَوْمَ تَبْعَثُ عِبَادَكَ، وَاجْعَلْنِي مِنْ أَوْلِيَائِكَ وَأَهْلِ طَاعَتِكَ
After arriving at your accommodation in Makkah, you may want to freshen up or take a rest before making your way to Masjid al-Haram to perform Tawaf al-Umrah.
- Entering Masjid-e-Haram
It is Sunnah to enter Masjid al-Haram via Bab al-Salam (the Gate of Peace). If you can’t do this, you may proceed through any other door. Step through with your right foot first and recite the supplication for entering a mosque. Either or both of these supplications may be recited:
.بِسْمِ اللهِ، اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ. اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي وَافْتَحْ لِي أَبْوَابَ رَحْمَتِك
“َعُوذُ بِاللهِ الْعَظِيمِ، وَبِوَجْهِهِ الْكَرِيمِ، وَسُلْطَانِهِ الْقَدِيمِ، مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ
Don’t perform Tahiyatul Masjid (prayer for greeting the mosque) if you intend to; your Tawaf will suffice as the “greeting” for Masjid al-Haram.
If you don’t have the intention of performing Tawaf immediately, you may perform Tahiyatul Masjid.
In Masjid al-Haram, it is permissible for anyone to walk across those performing Salah. However, their place of prostration should be avoided.
First Sight of the Kaaba:
After entering the mosque, keep your gaze lowered until you reach the Mataf area, which is the open space where Tawaf takes place. Upon seeing the Kaaba for the first time, raise your hands and make Dua with the utmost concentration and sincerity as this is among those places where prayers are answered. Remember to recite Salawat upon the Prophet ﷺ when making Dua.
It’s a Sunnah to recite the following Duas
اَللَّهُمَّ زِدْ أَهْلَ هَذَا الْبَيْتَ تَشْرِيفاً وَتَعْظِيماً وَتَكْرِيماً وَمَهَابَةً، وَزِدْ مَنْ شَرَّفَهُ وَكَرَّمَهُ مِمَّنْ حَجَّهُ أَوْ اعْتَمَرَهُ تَشْرِيفاً وَتَكْرِيماً وَتَعْظِيماً وَبِرّاً
اَللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ السَّلاَمُ وَمِنْكَ السَّلَامُ، حَيِّنَا رَبَّنَا بِالسَّلاَمِ.
First Sight of the Kaaba:
- Pilgrims performing Tawaf al-Ziyarah
- Pilgrims performing Tawaf
- To perform Tawaf yourself.
- To make an intention (verbally or not).
- To do Tawaf in Masjid al-Haram.
- To be in a state of Wudhu and free of anything that requires Ghusl e.g. menstruation.
- To conceal the Awrah.
- To start Tawaf from Hajar al-Aswad.
- To move in an anti-clockwise direction.
- To avoid the Hatim (the semi-circle area outside the Kaaba).
- To perform Tawaf by foot, for those who are able.
- To perform seven circuits.
- To perform two Rakahs of Salah after the Tawaf.
Idtiba refers to the practice of uncovering the right shoulder during Tawaf al-Umrah and Tawaf al-Qudum. It is Sunnah to perform Idtiba for the entire duration of the Tawaf i.e. for seven circuits. Neglecting Idtiba will not invalidate the Tawaf.
- Starting Point
Position yourself in line with the corner of the Kaaba where the Hajar al-Aswad is situated. This corner is the one that faces a single minaret (the other three corners face two minarets). There is a green light on the wall of the Masjid opposite the Kaaba which indicates where the Tawaf starts from. This is the starting point of each Shawt (circuit). Stand just before this starting point facing the Kaaba ensuring the Hajar al-Aswad is on your right side.
As with any other act of worship, make the Niyyah to perform Tawaf solely for Allah. You may also ask for the acceptance and ease for your Tawaf. The following words may be said:
O Allah, I intend to perform the Tawaf of Umrah of the Kaaba for your sake and your sake alone. Please accept it from me and make it easy for me.
You may make the following intention, which is in Arabic
اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّيْ أُرِيْدُ طَوَافَ بَيْتِكَ الْحَرَامِ فَيَسِّرْهُ لِيْ وَتَقَبَّلْهُ مِنِّيْ
Although kissing the Hajar al-Aswad is very virtuous, don’t harm others around you in an attempt to reach it.
- Kissing – If you reach the Hajar al-Aswad, place your hands on it, put your face between your hands, say “bismi llāhi wallāhu akbar (ِسْمِ اللَّهِ وَاللّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ)” and kiss it lightly. Some scholars have said it is preferable to kiss it three times, if you have the chance.
- Touching – If you’re in reaching distance but unable to kiss it, touch it with your hand(s) and kiss your hand(s).
- Saluting – If it isn’t possible to reach the stone, as is likely to be the case, perform a symbolic Istlamic from afar by directly facing the Hajar al-Aswad and raising your hands up to your earlobes (as you would do when starting Salah). Ensure your palms are also facing it, as though your face and hands are on the Hajar al-Aswad and say “bismi llāhi wallāhu akbar (ِسْمِ اللَّهِ وَاللّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ.)” You may kiss your palms if you wish.
The following supplication, may be recited when coming parallel to the Hajar al-Aswad in each circuit
سْمِ اللَّهِ وَاللّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللَّهُمَّ إِيْمَاناً بِكَ وَتَصْدِيْقاً بِكِتَابِكَ، وَوَفَاءً بِعَهْدِكَ، وَاتِّبَاعاً لِسُنَّةِ نَبِيِّكَ مُحَمَّدْ
- Start the Tawaf
Turn to your right and start the first circuit of your Tawaf, ensuring the Kaaba is on your left. Proceed in an anti-clockwise direction and avoid walking through the Hijr Ismail. If you happen to walk through it, the circuit won’t count and it will have to be repeated.
Hijr Ismail also known as the Hateem is an area adjacent to the Kaaba enclosed by a semi-circular wall.
In the first three circuits, men should perform Raml, which is the practice of walking briskly, lifting the legs forcefully and sticking out the chest. However, if there is congestion, which is likely to be the case if you’re closer to the Kaaba, only perform this Sunnah if you’re sure you won’t harm or inconvenience others.
- Dhikr & Dua
During your Tawaf, you may recite prayers and supplications of your choice. Duas are accepted during Tawaf so make the most of the occasion and remember Allah with sincerity and devotion. Reciting Quran and sending Salawat upon the Prophet ﷺ during Tawaf is also recommended.
- Rukn al-Yamani
Upon reaching the Rukn al-Yamani (the Yemeni Corner), the corner preceding the Hajar al-Aswad, touch it with your right hand or both hands and say “Allāhu akbar (اللّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ)” if you manage to get close enough. If there’s too much congestion, as is likely to be the case, proceed without saying Takbir or gesturing towards it.
It is a Sunnah to recite the following Dua between the Rukn al-Yamani and the Hajar al-Aswad
رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الْآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ
- End of Circuit
Returning to Hajar al-Aswad marks the completion of one circuit. Begin the second by doing Istilam of Hajar al-Aswad as previously described and saying “Allāhu akbar (اللّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ)”. You should say Allāhu akbar while doing Istilam in all subsequent circuits. You will be performing Istilam eight times in total during the Tawaf; one before the start of the Tawaf and one at the end of each of the seven circuits.
- During Tawaf
The Tawaf should be completed in a continuous manner with no interruptions between circuits. However, if a congregational prayer is due to start, you must join the congregation and resume your Tawaf from the position that you stopped. The circuit need not be repeated. These rules also apply if you need to repeat your Wudhu.
- Maqam Ibrahim
Upon finishing the Tawaf, perform two Rakahs of Salah, preferably in a position where Maqam Ibrahim is between you and the Kaaba. However, keep in mind that since Maqam Ibrahim is situated within the Mataf, there is often nowhere for pilgrims performing Tawaf to move, except around and almost over the top of those praying just beyond Maqam Ibrahim, resulting in a great deal of congestion. If it isn’t possible to perform the prayer there as a result of crowding, it can be performed anywhere in Masjid al-Haram.
While moving to the place where you intend to perform the two Rakahs, it is recommended to audibly recite the following:
وَاتَّخِذُوا مِنْ مَقَامِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ مُصَلًّى
It is Sunnah to recite Surah al-Kafirun (Qul Yā Ayyuha-l-Kāfirūn) in the first Rakah and Surah al-Ikhlas (Qul Huwa-llāhu Ahad) in the second,
قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا الْكَافِرُونَ – لَا أَعْبُدُ مَا تَعْبُدُونَ – وَلَا أَنتُمْ عَابِدُونَ مَا أَعْبُدُ – وَلَا أَنَا عَابِدٌ مَّا عَبَدتُّمْ – وَلَا أَنتُمْ عَابِدُونَ مَا أَعْبُدُ – لَكُمْ دِينُكُمْ وَلِيَ دِينِ –
قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ – اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ – لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ – وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ –
Make sure you make plenty of Dua after completing the prayer.
After completing Salah and making Dua, drink you fill of Zamzam water which is available around the Tawaf area and from various water fountains and dispensers in Masjid al-Haram. The entrance to the old well of Zamzam has been covered to allow for more room to do Tawaf.
The Prophet ﷺ said: “The water of Zamzam is for whatever purpose it is drunk for.” Before drinking the Zamzam water, make an intention that its consumption will be a means of fulfilling your wishes, whether that is good health, success in this world, or protection from the tribulations of the grave. When drinking the water, it is Mustahabb to should stand and face the Kaaba, say Bismillah, pause to take a breath three times, and say Alhamdulillah after finishing. You can also rub it on your face and body. You may recite the following Dua after drinking the water:
You may also make any other supplication of your choosing as it’s another station where Duas are accepted.
اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ عِلْمًا نَافِعًا وَ رِزْقًا وَاسِعًا وَ شِفَاءً مِنْ كُلِّ دَاءٍ
After you have finished drinking Zamzam water, you may proceed to the Multazam which is the area between Hajar al-Aswad and the door of the Kaaba.
The Multazam is almost impossible to get to during Hajj season due to the large crowds that gather. However, it is accessible during other parts of the year.
If it possible to reach the Multazam, raise your hands above your head, cling to the wall and press your chest and cheeks against it. It is a Sunnah of the Prophet ﷺ and yet another station where supplications are accepted, so you should lengthen your Dua here.
If you can’t reach the Multazam due to the crowds, you may face towards it and supplicate from a distance.